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ARTICLE: The Failure of the Founders of The US Constitution


Several years ago I began to feel overwhelmed by all the reports coming from Washington, especially the multitude of deficit spending and I decided to get involved. I began asking myself if the Founders may have overlooked something in the U.S. Constitution which could have preve[MORE]

ARTICLE: American Revolution and War for Independence


This paper is dedicated to the history of American Revolution and the War for Independence. The primary purpose of the survey given here is to carry out an analysis of the events of the late 18th century in the British colonies in North America on the basis of vast historical mat[MORE]

ARTICLE: Democracy or Republic?


Despite clear historical evidence showing that the United States was established as a republic and not a democracy, there is still confusion regarding the difference between these two very different systems of government.  Some confusion stems because the word “democracy” is[MORE]

ARTICLE: The History of Government and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms


Let's take a look at several thousand years of governmental disarmament of the populace. Of course all the while, the rulers, their guards and armies remained armed.[MORE]

ARTICLE: The Bill of Rights


"On February 6, 1788, Massachusetts, by a narrow margin of 19 votes in a convention with a membership of 335, endorsed the new Constitution, but recommended that a bill of rights be added to protect the States from Federal encroachment on individual liberties. . . . New York ra[MORE]

ARTICLE: Analysis and Effect of the Declaration of Independence


The Declaration may be divided into three parts, and it put an end to the inconsistency of the colonial position.[MORE]

FILE: The Articles of Confederation


The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitut[MORE]

Quote 126 details Share on Google+ - Quote 126 Linked In Share Button - Quote 126 But as the plan of the convention aims only at a partial union or consolidation, the State governments would clearly retain all the rights of sovereignty which they before had, and which were not, by that act, EXCLUSIVELY delegated to the United States.

Alexander Hamilton: Federalist No. 32, January 3, 1788
The Federalist Papers
Quoted Document: The Federalist Papers

Quote 201 details Share on Google+ - Quote 201 Linked In Share Button - Quote 201 The proposed Constitution, so far from implying an abolition of the State governments, makes them constituent parts of the national sovereignty, by allowing them a direct representation in the Senate, and leaves in their possession certain exclusive and very important portions of sovereign power. This fully corresponds, in every rational import of the terms, with the idea of a federal government.


Quote 252 details Share on Google+ - Quote 252 Linked In Share Button - Quote 252 Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies solely between man and his God, that he owes account to none other for his faith or his worship, that the legislative powers of government reach actions only, and not opinions, I contemplate with sovereign reverence that act of the whole American people which declared that their legislature should "make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," thus building a wall of separation between church and State.

Thomas Jefferson: letter to a Committee of the Danbury Baptist Association, Connecticut, January 1, 1802

Quote 267 details Share on Google+ - Quote 267 Linked In Share Button - Quote 267 If free governments the rulers are the servants, and the people their superiors and sovereigns. For the former, therefore, to return among the latter was not to degrade but to promote them.

Benjamin Franklin: Convention debate (26 July 1787)

Quote 316 details Share on Google+ - Quote 316 Linked In Share Button - Quote 316 Each State, in ratifying the Constitution, is considered as a sovereign body, independent of all others, and only to be bound by its own voluntary act. In this relation, then, the new Constitution will, if established, be a FEDERAL, and not a NATIONAL constitution.

James Madison: Federalist No. 39, January 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 359 details Share on Google+ - Quote 359 Linked In Share Button - Quote 359 Public opinion sets bounds to every government, and is the real sovereign in every free one.

James Madison: Public Opinion, December 19, 1791

Quote 372 details Share on Google+ - Quote 372 Linked In Share Button - Quote 372 The great desideratum in Government is, so to modify the sovereignty as that it may be sufficiently neutral between different parts of the Society to control one part from invading the rights of another, and at the same time sufficiently controlled itself, from setting up an interest adverse to that of the entire Society.

James Madison: letter to Thomas Jefferson, October 24, 1787

Quote 542 details Share on Google+ - Quote 542 Linked In Share Button - Quote 542 We have this day restored the Sovereign to whom alone men ought to be obedient. He reigns in Heaven, and with a propitious eye beholds his subjects assuming that freedom of thought and dignity of self-direction which He bestowed on them. From the rising to the setting sun, may His kingdom come!

Samuel Adams: After signing the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776

Quote 561 details Share on Google+ - Quote 561 Linked In Share Button - Quote 561 I hope Congress, before they adjourn will take into very serious Consideration the necessary Amendments of the Constitution. Those whom I call the best - the most judicious & disinterested Federalists, who wish for the perpetual Union, Liberty & Happiness of the States & their respective Citizens, many of them if not all are anxiously expecting them. They wish to see a Line drawn as clearly as may be, between the federal Powers vested in Congress and the distinct Sovereignty of the several States upon which the private & personal Rights of the Citizens depend. Without such Distinction there will be Danger of the Constitution issuing imperceptibly and gradually into a consolidated Government over all the States: which, although it may be wished for by some was reprobated in the Idea by the highest Advocates for the Constitution as it stood without Amendments. I am fully persuaded that the population of the U S living different Climates, of different Education and Manners, and possessed of different Habits & feelings under one consolidated Government can not long remain free, or indeed remain under any kind of Government but despotism

Samuel Adams: Letter to Elbridge Gerry, August 22, 1789

Quote 562 details Share on Google+ - Quote 562 Linked In Share Button - Quote 562 mean, my friend, to let you know how deeply I am impressed with a sense of the importance of Amendments; that the good people may clearly see the distinction, for there is a distinction, between the federal powers vested in Congress and the sovereign authority belonging to the several States, which is the Palladium (the protection) of the private and personal rights of the citizens.

Samuel Adams: Letter to Richard Henry Lee, August 24, 1789

Quote 773 details Share on Google+ - Quote 773 Linked In Share Button - Quote 773 This country and this people seem to have been made for each other, and it appears as if it was the design of Providence, that an inheritance so proper and convenient for a band of brethren, united to each other by the strongest ties, should never be split into a number of unsocial, jealous, and alien sovereignties.

John Jay: The Federalist Papers - 1787
The Federalist Papers

Quote 844 details Share on Google+ - Quote 844 Linked In Share Button - Quote 844 To the constitution ... the term sovereign, is totally unknown. There is but one place where it could have been used with propriety. But, even in that place it would not, perhaps, have comported with the delicacy of those, who ordained and established the Constitution. They might have announced themselves "SOVEREIGN" people of the United Stats: But serenely conscious of the fact, they avoided the ostentatious defalcation.

James Wilson: Opinion in Chisholm v. Georgia, 1793

Quote 1085 details Share on Google+ - Quote 1085 Linked In Share Button - Quote 1085 The parliament insist on a power over all the liberties and privileges claimed by the colonies, and hence require a blind obedience and acquiescence in whatever they do: Should the behavior of the colonies happen not to square with these sovereign notions, (as I much fear it will not) what remains but by violence to compel them to obedience. Violence will beget resentment, and provoke to acts never dreamt of: But I will not anticipate evil; I pray God avert it.

Charles Thomson: letter to Benjamin Franklin, September 24, 1765

Quote 1115 details Share on Google+ - Quote 1115 Linked In Share Button - Quote 1115 Before any man can be considered as a member of Civil Society, he must be considered as a subject of the Governor of the Universe: And if a member of Civil Society, who enters into any subordinate Association, must always do it with a reservation of his duty to the general authority; much more must every man who becomes a member of any particular Civil Society, do it with a saving of his allegiance to the Universal Sovereign.

James Madison: James Madison, Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments (1785)
For God and Country (T.K. Marion)

Quote 1303 details Share on Google+ - Quote 1303 Linked In Share Button - Quote 1303 From the nature of things, every society must at all times possess within itself the sovereign powers of legislation.

Thomas Jefferson: Rights of British America, 1774



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