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Quote 307 details Share on Google+ - Quote 307 Linked In Share Button - Quote 307 An ELECTIVE DESPOTISM was not the government we fought for; but one which should not only be founded on free principles, but in which the powers of government should be so divided and balanced among several bodies of magistracy, as that no one could transcend their legal limits, without being effectually checked and restrained by the others.

James Madison: Federalist No. 48, February 1, 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 310 details Share on Google+ - Quote 310 Linked In Share Button - Quote 310 As the cool and deliberate sense of the community ought in all governments, and actually will in all free governments ultimately prevail over the views of its rulers; so there are particular moments in public affairs, when the people stimulated by some irregular passion, or some illicit advantage, or misled by the artful misrepresentations of interested men, may call for measures which they themselves will afterwards be the most ready to lament and condemn. In these critical moments, how salutary will be the interference of some temperate and respectable body of citizens, in order to check the misguided career, and to suspend the blow mediated by the people against themselves, until reason, justice and truth, can regain their authority over the public mind?

James Madison: Federalist No. 63, 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 311 details Share on Google+ - Quote 311 Linked In Share Button - Quote 311 As there is a degree of depravity in mankind which requires a certain degree of circumspection and distrust: So there are other qualities in human nature, which justify a certain portion of esteem and confidence. Republican government presupposes the existence of these qualities in a higher degree than any other form. Were the pictures which have been drawn by the political jealousy of some among us, faithful likenesses of the human character, the inference would be that there is not sufficient virtue among men for self-government; and that nothing less than the chains of despotism can restrain them from destroying and devouring one another.

James Madison: Federalist No. 55, February 15, 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 312 details Share on Google+ - Quote 312 Linked In Share Button - Quote 312 Besides the advantage of being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation, the existence of subordinate governments, to which the people are attached and by which the militia officers are appointed, forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition, more insurmountable than any which a simple government of any form can admit of.

James Madison: Federalist No. 48, February 1, 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 313 details Share on Google+ - Quote 313 Linked In Share Button - Quote 313 But ambitious encroachments of the federal government, on the authority of the State governments, would not excite the opposition of a single State, or of a few States only. They would be signals of general alarm... But what degree of madness could ever drive the federal government to such an extremity.

James Madison: Federalist No. 46, January 29, 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 317 details Share on Google+ - Quote 317 Linked In Share Button - Quote 317
Energy in government is essential to that security against external and internal danger and to that prompt and salutary execution of the laws which enter into the very definition of good government.

James Madison: Federalist No. 37, January 11, 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 324 details Share on Google+ - Quote 324 Linked In Share Button - Quote 324 Government is instituted to protect property of every sort; as well that which lies in the various rights of individuals, as that which the term particularly expresses. This being the end of government, that alone is a just government which impartially secures to every man whatever is his own.

James Madison: Essay on Property, March 29, 1792

Quote 329 details Share on Google+ - Quote 329 Linked In Share Button - Quote 329 I acknowledge, in the ordinary course of government, that the exposition of the laws and Constitution devolves upon the judicial. But I beg to know upon what principle it can be contended that any one department draws from the Constitution greater powers than another in marking out the limits of the powers of the several departments.

James Madison: speech in the Congress of the United States, June 17, 1789

Quote 332 details Share on Google+ - Quote 332 Linked In Share Button - Quote 332 If Congress can do whatever in their discretion can be done by money, and will promote the General Welfare, the Government is no longer a limited one, possessing enumerated powers, but an indefinite one, subject to particular exceptions.

James Madison: letter to Edmund Pendleton, January 21, 1792

Quote 334 details Share on Google+ - Quote 334 Linked In Share Button - Quote 334 If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place, oblige it to control itself.


Quote 335 details Share on Google+ - Quote 335 Linked In Share Button - Quote 335 If we resort for a criterion to the different principles on which different forms of government are established, we may define a republic to be, or at least may bestow that name on, a government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people, and is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure for a limited period, or during good behavior.

James Madison: Federalist No. 39, January 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 338 details Share on Google+ - Quote 338 Linked In Share Button - Quote 338 In forming the Senate, the great anchor of the Government, the questions as they came within the first object turned mostly on the mode of appointment, and the duration of it.

James Madison: letter to Thomas Jefferson, October 24, 1787

Quote 339 details Share on Google+ - Quote 339 Linked In Share Button - Quote 339 In the first place, it is to be remembered, that the general government is not to be charged with the whole power of making and administering laws: its jurisdiction is limited to certain enumerated objects, which concern all the members of the republic, but which are not to be attained by the separate provisions of any.

James Madison: Federalist No. 14, November 30, 1787
The Federalist Papers

Quote 341 details Share on Google+ - Quote 341 Linked In Share Button - Quote 341 Is there no virtue among us? If there be not, we are in a wretched situation. No theoretical checks-no form of government can render us secure. To suppose that any form of government will secure liberty or happiness without any virtue in the people, is a chimerical idea, if there be sufficient virtue and intelligence in the community, it will be exercised in the selection of these men. So that we do not depend on their virtue, or put confidence in our rulers, but in the people who are to choose them.

James Madison: speech at the Virginia Ratifying Convention, June 20, 1788

Quote 342 details Share on Google+ - Quote 342 Linked In Share Button - Quote 342 It becomes all therefore who are friends of a Government based on free principles to reflect, that by denying the possibility of a system partly federal and partly consolidated, and who would convert ours into one either wholly federal or wholly consolidated, in neither of which forms have individual rights, public order, and external safety, been all duly maintained, they aim a deadly blow at the last hope of true liberty on the face of the Earth.

James Madison: Notes on Nullification

Quote 343 details Share on Google+ - Quote 343 Linked In Share Button - Quote 343 It has been said that all Government is an evil. It would be more proper to say that the necessity of any Government is a misfortune. This necessity however exists; and the problem to be solved is, not what form of Government is perfect, but which of the forms is least imperfect.

James Madison: to an unidentified correspondent, 1833

Quote 347 details Share on Google+ - Quote 347 Linked In Share Button - Quote 347 It is sufficiently obvious, that persons and property are the two great subjects on which Governments are to act; and that the rights of persons, and the rights of property, are the objects, for the protection of which Government was instituted. These rights cannot well be separated.

James Madison: Speech at the Virginia Convention, December 2, 1829

Quote 349 details Share on Google+ - Quote 349 Linked In Share Button - Quote 349 It is too early for politicians to presume on our forgetting that the public good, the real welfare of the great body of the people, is the supreme object to be pursued; and that no form of government whatever has any other value than as it may be fitted for the attainment of this object.

James Madison: Federalist No. 45, January 26, 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 350 details Share on Google+ - Quote 350 Linked In Share Button - Quote 350 It may be considered as an objection inherent in the principle, that as every appeal to the people would carry an implication of some defect in the government, frequent appeals would in great measure deprive the government of that veneration which time bestows on every thing, and without which perhaps the wisest and freest governments would not possess the requisite stability.

James Madison: Federalist No. 49, February 5, 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 352 details Share on Google+ - Quote 352 Linked In Share Button - Quote 352 Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society. It ever has been and ever will be pursued until it be obtained, or until liberty be lost in the pursuit.

James Madison: Federalist No. 51, February 8, 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 357 details Share on Google+ - Quote 357 Linked In Share Button - Quote 357 On the distinctive principles of the Government ... of the U. States, the best guides are to be found in... The Declaration of Independence, as the fundamental Act of Union of these States.

James Madison: letter to Thomas Jefferson, February 8, 1825

Quote 359 details Share on Google+ - Quote 359 Linked In Share Button - Quote 359 Public opinion sets bounds to every government, and is the real sovereign in every free one.

James Madison: Public Opinion, December 19, 1791

Quote 361 details Share on Google+ - Quote 361 Linked In Share Button - Quote 361 Stability in government is essential to national character and to the advantages annexed to it, as well as to that repose and confidence in the minds of the people, which are among the chief blessings of civil society.

James Madison: Federalist No. 37, January 11, 1788
The Federalist Papers

Quote 369 details Share on Google+ - Quote 369 Linked In Share Button - Quote 369 The diversity in the faculties of men from which the rights of property originate, is not less an insuperable obstacle to a uniformity of interests. The protection of these faculties is the first object of government.

James Madison: Federalist No. 10, November 23, 1787
The Federalist Papers

Quote 370 details Share on Google+ - Quote 370 Linked In Share Button - Quote 370 The essence of Government is power; and power, lodged as it must be in human hands, will ever be liable to abuse.

James Madison: speech in the Virginia constitutional convention, Dec 2, 1829



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